Apm29's Studio.

Flutter

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2019/12/11 Share

Flutter

Get Started: Install on Windows

INFO

大部分来自 https://flutter.io

Get the Flutter SDK

SDKv0.2.8下载地址

Update your path

在window环境变量PATH中添加 flutter\bin,
记得重启电脑后生效

Run flutter doctor

在CMD中执行flutter doctor命令,检测哪些 工具/环境 没有安装

Android setup

一般是AndroidStudio

Install Android Studio

AndroidStudio

Set up your Android device

Download and install Android Studio.

Start Android Studio, and go through the ‘Android Studio Setup Wizard’. This will install the latest Android SDK, Android SDK Platform-Tools, and Android SDK Build-Tools, which are required by Flutter when developing for Android.

Set up your Android device
To prepare to run and test your Flutter app on an Android device, you’ll need an Android device running Android 4.1 (API level 16) or higher.

Enable Developer options and USB debugging on your device. Detailed instructions are available in the Android documentation.
Using a USB cable, plug your phone into your computer. If prompted on your device, authorize your computer to access your device.
In the terminal, run the flutter devices command to verify that Flutter recognizes your connected Android device.
Start your app by running flutter run.
By default, Flutter uses the version of the Android SDK where your adb tool is based. If you want Flutter to use a different installation of the Android SDK, you must set the ANDROID_HOME environment variable to that installation directory.

Set up the Android emulator

To prepare to run and test your Flutter app on the Android emulator, follow these steps:

Enable VM acceleration on your machine.
Launch Android Studio>Tools>Android>AVD Manager and select Create Virtual Device.
Choose a device definition and select Next.
Select one or more system images for the Android versions you want to emulate, and select Next. An x86 or x86_64 image is recommended.
Under Emulated Performance, select Hardware - GLES 2.0 to enable hardware acceleration.
Verify the AVD configuration is correct, and select Finish.

For details on the above steps, see Managing AVDs.

In Android Virtual Device Manager, click Run in the toolbar. The emulator starts up and displays the default canvas for your selected OS version and device.
Start your app by running flutter run. The connected device name is Android SDK built for , where platform is the chip family, such as x86.

1. 最简单的Flutter APP

编辑新建项目中的 main.dart 文件

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import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {
runApp(
new Center(
child: new Text(
'Hello, world!',
textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
),
),
);
}

main方法是app的主入口,runApp方法接收一个Widget对象,这里的Center相当于Android中RelativeLayout加了gravity-center(大概吧),Text应该对应的TextView这种,点击run或者在terminal中flutter run运行程序,crtl+s可以热加载程序,随时修改代码.

这里的Center/Text都是 Widget的子类,所有的UI控件都继承自Widget,比较常用的Widget 有

  • Text
  • Stack(有点像FrameLayout)
  • Row/Column (类似LineLayout)
  • Container(有Margin/padding/border/background,可以通过Matrix变成三维空间?!)

下面的代码是一些控件的使用,因为使用Material控件,需要在pubspec.yaml中申明
name: my_app flutter: uses-material-design: true

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import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

class MyAppBar extends StatelessWidget {
MyAppBar({this.title});

// Fields in a Widget subclass are always marked "final".

final Widget title;

@override
Widget build(BuildContext context) {
return new Container(
height: 56.0, // in logical pixels
padding: const EdgeInsets.symmetric(horizontal: 8.0),
decoration: new BoxDecoration(color: Colors.blue[500]),
// Row is a horizontal, linear layout.
child: new Row(
// <Widget> is the type of items in the list.
children: <Widget>[
new IconButton(
icon: new Icon(Icons.menu),
tooltip: 'Navigation menu',
onPressed: null, // null disables the button
),
// Expanded expands its child to fill the available space.
new Expanded(
child: title,
),
new IconButton(
icon: new Icon(Icons.search),
tooltip: 'Search',
onPressed: null,
),
],
),
);
}
}

class MyScaffold extends StatelessWidget {
@override
Widget build(BuildContext context) {
// Material is a conceptual piece of paper on which the UI appears.
return new Material(
// Column is a vertical, linear layout.
child: new Column(
children: <Widget>[
new MyAppBar(
title: new Text(
'Example title',
style: Theme.of(context).primaryTextTheme.title,
),
),
new Expanded(
child: new Center(
child: new Text('Hello, world!'),
),
),
],
),
);
}
}

void main() {
runApp(new MaterialApp(
title: 'My app', // used by the OS task switcher
home: new MyScaffold(),
));
}

Widget的目录在这个网址上有(WidgetCatalog)

Widget

Container

  • 没有父布局的时候填充整个屏幕
  • color和decoration只可有一个
  • padding: child与边界的距离
  • contraint:让文字有足够的垂直空间,并且水平延伸来适应父控件
  • 旋转偏移等transfromation之后:container占据的位置不变的

Dismissible

  • 滑动删除组件(类似iOS)
  • 可以设定滑动方向
  • 设定滑动成功事件
  • 代码例子
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    Widget _buildBody() {
    print(_list.length);
    scrollController.addListener(() {
    print("position:" + scrollController.position.pixels.toString());
    print("offset:" + scrollController.offset.toString());
    });
    return new ListView.builder(
    controller: scrollController,
    physics: new BouncingScrollPhysics(),
    itemBuilder: (context, index) {
    final item = _list[index];
    return new Dismissible(
    //key用于复用
    key: new Key(item),
    child: new Container(
    height: 200.0,
    child: new Align(child: new Text(item)),
    ),
    //background决定了背景(滑动露出来的部分)
    background: new Container(
    color: Colors.red,
    padding: new EdgeInsets.fromLTRB(0.0, 0.0, 10.0, 0.0),
    alignment: Alignment.centerRight,
    child: new Text(
    'Delete',
    textAlign: TextAlign.center,
    style: new TextStyle(color: Colors.white, fontSize: 20.0),
    ),
    ),
    //滑动完成回调
    onDismissed: (direction) {
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(new SnackBar(
    content: new Text(
    'Item $item Removed',
    textAlign: TextAlign.center,
    style: new TextStyle(color: Colors.white, fontSize: 20.0),
    ),
    duration: new Duration(seconds: 3),
    ));
    },
    );
    },
    itemCount: _list.length,
    );
    }

AnimatedList

  • 在创建的时候带入一个GlobalKey,用于InsertItem 和 RemoveItem

margin/padding

EdgeInsets is a class that will generate the appropiate margins. It has some fancy constructors:

  • EdgeInsets.only(left, top, right, bottom): allows us to define different margins per side. All them are optional, so you can specify, for example, only left and top.
  • EdgeInsets.fromLTRB(left, top, right, bottom): similar to previous, but, you have to specify the four margins with positional parameters. The LTRB is a nmemonic rule (Left, Top, Right, Bottom).
  • EdgeInsets.all(value): sets the same margin for all four sides.
  • EdgeInsets.symmetric(vertical, horizontal): allows us to specify top/bottom and/or left/right with a single value.

Enter the Slivers

Despite our list is now fully working as intended, I want to introduce you to the use of Slivers.

Slivers are a very powerful tool, and the scrollable Widgets are based on internal use of Slivers.

A Sliver is a piece of scrollable content. Slivers should be placed inside a ScrollView widget. The basic class to create a ScrollView is CustomScrollView which allows a list of Slivers as children. There are several ScrollView classes, and reviewing all them goes beyond this article.

There are also several Slivers, these are some of them:

SliverAppBar: used to create a collapsable material AppBar.
SliverList: a linear list of items.
SliverFixedExtentList: similar to the previous one, but for items with fixed height.
SliverToBoxAdapter: a sliver with a single child with a defined size.
SliverPadding: a simple sliver that contains antoher Sliver and allows us to apply a padding.

Route

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return new GestureDetector(
onTap: () => Navigator.of(context).push(new PageRouteBuilder(
pageBuilder: (_, __, ___) => new DetailPage(planet),
)),
child: new Container(
height: 120.0,
margin: const EdgeInsets.symmetric(
vertical: 16.0,
horizontal: 24.0,
),
child: new Stack(
children: <Widget>[
planetCard,
planetThumbnail,
],
),
)
);

Now, instead of recovering the PageRoute from the table of routes with pushNamed we are creating a new one using the class PageRoutBuilder, and it has a parameter named pageBuilder that should return a new Widget to show as page, in this case, DetailPage receiving as a parameter the planet to show.

Hero动画

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new Hero(
tag: "planet-hero-${planet.id}",
child: new Image(
image: new AssetImage(planet.image),
height: 92.0,
width: 92.0,
),
),

给两个不同页面的Widget包裹Hero,打上相同的tag,在页面跳转时(Navigator.push…等)会执行hero动画

隐藏keyboard

  • 方法一
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//把一个新的FocusNode作为新焦点,这样其他的控件(比如TextField TextFormField)会失去焦点,从而隐藏键盘
FocusScope.of(context).requestFocus(new FocusNode());

相应的,请求焦点也可以用这个方法

  • 方法二

比较Hacky的方法

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SystemChannels.textInput.invokeMethod('TextInput.clearClient');
CATALOG
  1. 1. Flutter
  • Get Started: Install on Windows
    1. 0.1. INFO
    2. 0.2. Get the Flutter SDK
    3. 0.3. Update your path
    4. 0.4. Run flutter doctor
    5. 0.5. Android setup
    6. 0.6. Install Android Studio
    7. 0.7. Set up your Android device
    8. 0.8. Set up the Android emulator
    9. 0.9. 1. 最简单的Flutter APP
  • 1. Widget
    1. 1.1. Container
    2. 1.2. Dismissible
    3. 1.3. AnimatedList
    4. 1.4. margin/padding
    5. 1.5. Enter the Slivers
    6. 1.6. Route
    7. 1.7. Hero动画
  • 隐藏keyboard